Bab 6


By, Abi rohmad/130511100141

1.    Syntax.

That is, a knowledge about structure write of sentences.

2.    Deep and surface structure.

Surface structure that different syntactic forms they have as individual English sentence. The deep structure is an abstract level of structural organization in which all the elements determining structureal interpretation are represented. Where the basic components (nouns phrase + verb + noun phrase). Share by the two sentences can represented.

3.    Structure ambiguity.

They have two meaning that almostly simmilary. I think, actually is same meaning  but just different sentence, for example; “Annie had an umbrella and she bumped into a man with it”. The other expresion; “Annie bumped into a man and the man happened tobe carrayingan umbrella”.

4.    Recursion.

Repeatable any number of times. Repeat sentence when we talk something and it near with other a thing. Example “ on the table“ complete sentence is “the gun was on the table“. We can repeat with other word such as “near the window” than “in the bedroom  so the complete sentence, the gun was on the table near the window in the bedroom. Complete sentences that become more clear about what we talk.

5.    Tree diagrams.

As to be more explanation. One of most common ways to create a visual represention of syntac structure. They as representation for more eassy to understanding.



     NP      VP


Art    N       V               NP


Art N

The girl    saw

a dog

6.    Symbols used in syntactic analysis.

In symbols use in syntactic analysis there are three more simbols that are commonly used in syntactic description.

1.    NP->Art N .  NP (Noun phrase such as the dog  consist of or  rewrite as(->) an article (Art) the and a noun (N) dog.   

2.    NP -> Art (Adj) N

3.    NP->Art N                                          Art N

NP->Pro                     NP ->             Pro                  PN ->{Art N, Pro, PN}

NP->NP                                              PN

7.    Phrase structure rules.

This  second approach is very appealing because it would enable us to generate a very large number of sentences with what look like a very small number of rules.these rules are called phrase structure rules.





Art                   N         NP -> Art N , “a noun phrase rewrites as an article followed by a noun”


8.    Lexicals rules.

“a proper noun rewrites as Mary or George.” (it’s very small word).

PN -> {Mary, Goerge}

N ->{girl, dog, boy}

Art ->{a, the}

Pro ->{you,it}

V ->{followed, helped, saw}

9.    Movement rules.

That is move one part of the structure to a diferrent position.

10. Back to recursion.

Complement phrase.

The word that, as used in exsamples, is called a complementizer (C). The rules of that complementizer is to introduce a complement phrase (CP).

S    > NP VP

VP  > V CP

CP  > C S

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