Jumat, 17 Oktober 2014

PENJELASAN DAN CONTOH MAIN IDEA DAN TOPIC SENTENCE english/indo.


Outline dan penjelasan main idea, and topic sentnce.

Liburan kian berlalu, sebentar lagi kita kembali bersekolah seperti biasa. Dan mungkin Analytical Exposition Text adalah salah satu pelajaran pembuka “otak” kita sekarang ini. Meski sedikit menyebalkan memang, mau tidak mau kita harus mempelajari salah satu jenis teks yang satu ini demi kelancaran “sekolah kita” dan tentu peningkatan pemahaman bahasa Inggris yang kita miliki.


Bagaimanapun, Analytical Exposition merupakan bagian penting dalam pelajaran bahasa Inggris. Jika sobat ingin memahaminya, mari kita bersama-sama menelaah pelajaran ini dengan seksama, jangan lupa berdo’a semoga dengan membaca tulisan di bawah ini kita diberi pemahaman lebih, oke..

Definisi dan Tujuan Analytical Exposition


 

Pengertian atau definisi analytical exposition text sebenarnya sangat mudah dipahami. Secara bahasa, “Analytical” bermakna, “examining or liking to examine things very carefully” (Cambridge). Artinya, (suka memeriksa / menguji sesuatu secara hati-hati). Sedangkan makna exposition sendiri sudah pernah saya jelaskan pada tulisan tentang hortatory exposition, yaitu “a comprehensive description” atau penjelasan secara luas.


Dengan demikian, pengertian Analytical Exposition bisa dipahami sebagai text yang mencoba memberikan penjelasan secara komprehensif tentang suatu masalah dengan menampilkan pendapat-pendapat pendukung secara hati-hati.


Sedangkan tujuan utama analytical exposition text ini adalah, “ to attempt to persuade the reader to believe something by presenting one side of the argument.” Artinya mencoba meyakinkan pembaca agar mempercayai sesuatu dengan memberikan satu sisi pendapat saja.”


Mengacu pada tujuan analytical exposition ini, hal ini tidak bermakna bahwa dalam analytical exposition berisi satu argumen saja, akan tetapi berisi berbagai argumen yang memiliki tujuan sama.

 


Generic Structure of Analytical Exposition


 

Perbedaan susunan antara hortatory exposition dengan analytical exposition hanyalah pada struktur terakhirnya saja. Jika hortatory exposition diakhiri dengan recommendation, analytical expostion diakhiri dengan conclusion. Untuk lebih jelasnya mari kita simak di bawah ini:

Thesis


 

Seperti pada jenis teks lainnya, thesis ini berisi pandangan penulis tentang suatu masalah secara lebih sederhana.  Untuk lebih jelasnya silahkan baca penjelasan mengenai thesis statemen pada teks hortatory.

Series of Argument


 

Series of Argument berisi beberapa penjelasan lanjutan dari keterangan sederhana dalam thesis statement. Ketika menulis argument ini, diusahakan agar lebih teliti lagi karena pada bagian inilah sebuah tulisan bisa mempengaruhi pembaca. Jika perlu, sertakan pendapat menurut para ahli.

Conclusion


 

Conclusion sering juga disebut dengan reiteration. Pada bagian ini, kita hanya dituntut untuk menyimpulkan, atau lebih sederhananya kita mengungkapkan kembali apa yang dijelaskan pada thesis statement.


Danger of Smoke Cigarette

By Abi Rohmad/130511100141/writting D

That cigarette is dangerous. Who smokes cigarette? The dangerous chemical will destroy slowly. After smoker broken the death is waiting. Why cigarette is dangerous? Third reason why smoke cigarette danger for us. First reason cigarette contain of danger nicotine, second there is danger Tar and third, cigarette cause danger cancer.

Cigarrete contain nicotine that more danger for our health, almost 70 percent in Idonesia people have died cause smoking cigarette. Although it is danger for us, but cigarrete is nomber one investor to Indonesia country. Nicotine can make new smokers, and if our’s more smoke to cigarrete we wiil get to headache and nauseous. Acording National Cancer Institute, about 87 percent die cause cancer of heart by nicotine from cigarrete. Acording American Heart Association, nicotine has influence in a direct to heart way blood. The matter nicotine that cause cancer of heart and stroke.

Second containing in cigarrete is Tar. Tar is new technical term, term that use to describe danger subtances in cigarrete. Consentration Tar in cigarrete there are three part; high-Tar that contain 22 mg Tar, medium-Tar contain 15 to 21 mg, and low-Tar contain 7 mg or minus. Filter cigarrete at first to add on 1950 years, when known that danger subtance of cigarrete (Tar) which broken health. Human hope that filter can make Tar trap, but the result not agree. Tar be obtain in cigarrete cause fire, and last smoke be found more great Tar compare smoke at first burn Tar in smoke cigarrete can paralyze cilia in heart, and contribution to disease heart like cronis broncitis and cancer.

Danger cancer cause by smoke cigarrete. Ninety percent of lung cancers are caused by smoking. If we smoke five cigarettes a day, we are six times more likely to die of lung cancer than a non smoker. If we smoke twenty cigarettes a day, the risk is nineteen greater. Ninety five percent of people who suffer of bronchitis are people who are smoking. Smokers are two and half times more likely to die of heart disease than non smokers.

 

The conclusion, smoking is really good for tobacco companies because they do make much money from smoking habit and a country so well-off. Smoking however is not good for every body else.


 

http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-CdEcyXyCdiU/UJ8h7zwuhXI/AAAAAAAAAIE/1T9YupfUJh8/s320/english+pic.jpg

 

    The main idea is the most important thing the paragraph says about the topic. The topic is what a paragraph is all about.

 

    Kalimat utama, ide pokok, gagasan utama, dan pikiran utama adalah empat istilah yang sebetulnya bisa dipangkas menjadi dua saja; Kalimat utama dan ide pokok/gagasan utama/pikiran utama.

 

    Ide pokok, gagasan utama, dan pikiran utama merupakan tiga istilah berbeda yang menunjuk pada persoalan yang sama. “Ide” dalam Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia (KBBI) diartikan sebagai rancangan yang tersusun di dalam pikiran. Sementara, “gagasan” artinya hasil pemikiran. Dan “pikiran” adalah hasil berpikir. Tetapi dalam bahasa inggris ketiga istilah tersebut menunjuk satu istilah “Idea” walaupun tentunya secara etimologi akan berbeda. 

saya simpulkan bahwa “ide” merupakan bahasa serapan untuk arti yang juga di sebut sebagai “gagasan” atau “pikiran”

 

    Gagasan utama, ide pokok, dan pikiran utama dalam bahasa inggris disebut “main idea” . Jadi kita akan membahas pengertian “kalimat utama” dan “ide pokok/gagasan utama/pikiran utam.

 

    

Gagasan Utama

      Gagasan utama atau dalam bahasa inggris “main idea” secara sederhana dapat diartikan sebagai inti dari kalimat utama. Pengertian ini merupakan hasil pendekatan dari aplikasinya, bukan pada proses kreatif kepenulisan. Karena pada dasarnya, gagasan utama akan secara paksa atau alami tertuang secara jelas dalam kalimat utama.

Pada contoh paragraf di atas, gagasan utamanya adalah “bahwa tanda-tanda infeksi bisa ditemukan sendiri dengan mengamati kulit anak dari dekat.”

     Gagasan utama bersifat abstrak. Artinya, gagasan utama tidak melulu tertuang secara konkret dalam sebuah paragraf. Gagasan utama ini akan tertuang dalam bentuk kalimat utama. Sementara kalimat bisa beragam bentuk dan sudut pandangnya.

Dari uraian di atas, kita akan dengan mudah menemukan gagasan utama sebuah paragraf ketika kalimat utama sudah ditemukan. Begitu juga sebaliknya, kalimat utama akan mudah ditemukan, ketika gagasan utama sudah bisa ditangkap.  Namun, karena kalimat utama lebih bersifat aplikatif, maka, akan lebih objektif jika pencarian kalimat utama didahulukan daripada gagasan utama.

     Pemahaman terhadap dua hal di atas hanya mungkin didapat melalui proses latihan yang terus menerus. Dalam proses pembelajaran di sekolah hendaknya siswa diarahkan untuk terus berlatih menemukan dua hal tersebut dalam satu atau tiga wacana penuh. Wacana bisa diambil dari surat kabar terpercaya atau media lainnya.

 

Kalimat Utama/Kalimat Pokok

    Kalimat utama adalah kalimat yang menjadi inti/dasar suatu paragraf. Jika kalimat tersebut sengaja dihilangkan, maka isi paragraf tersebut akan hilang. Hal ini tidak terjadi dengan kalimat-kalimat lain yang memang hanya berfungsi sebagai penjelas. Kalimat utama berupa ringkasan dari sebuah paragraf yang rupakan pandangan mendalam dari ide pokok penulis dalam paragraf tersebut.

Sebagai contoh, perhatikan paragraf berikut.

Banyak orang tua yang makin tidak awas terhadap bahaya MRSA. Sementara mereka yang mengetahuinya khawatir jika telah mengabaikan tanda-tanda awal. Sebenarnya, anda tak perlu terburu-buru ke dokter tiap kali anak batuk atau muncul ruam di kulit. Anda bisa menemukan sendiri tanda-tanda infeksi dengan mengamati kulit anak dari dekat.

    Kalimat utama pada paragraf tersebut adalah “Anda bisa menemukan sendiri tanda-tanda infeksi dengan mengamati kulit anak dari dekat.” Ketika kalimat tersebut dihapus, maka isi dari paragraf tersebut akan buyar atau bahkan hilang. Tetapi itu tidak akan terjadi pada kalimat pertama dan kedua. Kalimat tersebut mengandung permasalahan yang diuraikan kalimat penjelas.

 

    Dalam Bahasa Inggris, kalimat utama/kalimat pokok/pokok kalimat, ini disebut sebagai “topic sentence” atau “focus sentence”.

Jadi secara garis besar, kalimat utama akan memiliki point-point berikut.

1. Mengandung permasalahan yang potensial untuk diuraikan;
2. Mempunyai arti yang jelas tanpa dihubungkan dengan kalimat lain
3. Umumnya berada di awal paragraf (untuk paragraf deduktif), dan di akhir paragraf (paragraf induktif).

 

Mencari main idea dalam paragraf Orientation

Pay attention to this paragraph bellow !

  On Friday I went to Mount Bromo. It is one of the mountains Iwant to see very much. It is near   Probolinggo. That is why I stayed at Nida and Hasan's house at Cemara Lawang, Probolinggo.
 

Ingat :

   -  main idea adalah ide pokok (gagasan utama) dalam suatu paragraf.
  -  main idea dapat diletakkan di depan, tengah atau akhir paragraf.

Contoh :
  Main idea pada paragraf di atas terdapat di awal paragraf yaitu : " On Friday I went to Mount Bromo".

 

 

 Latihan dan Pembahasan

 

     Read the passages below carefully, and then answer the following questions. Refer back to the selections if you need help.

 

The Navajo Indians
A Report By: Rachel

     The Navajo Indians were a very interesting tribe to learn and study about. The things that interested me the most were their simple lifestyle. They had no electricity, running water, or indoor plumbing. Life couldn't get much simpler than this!

     Navajo Indians lived in houses called hogans. These houses were made of mud, wooden poles, and tree bark. Many Navajo today still live in hogans.

The Pueblo Indians taught the Navajo many skills. They taught them to plant crops, such as melon, corn, beans, and squash. This is why the Navajo were referred to as farmers, sheep herders, and laborers. Other skills of the Navajo are sand paintings, jewelry making, and rug weaving.

     Navajo Indians wore shoes called moccasins to protect their feet from the hot, desert ground and cactus. They were made from leather or rawhide.

Navajo Indians held ceremonies called Night Chants. They wore masks and shook rattles while praying for rain and good crops. The ceremonies lasted for nine days!

     The Navajo were warlike. They would sometimes raid other Indians, Mexicans, and white men. They would steal horses, sheep, and cows. In 1863, Kit Carson marched 400 men through Canyon de Chelly, the stronghold of the Navajo. Carson and his men killed so much livestock and destroyed so many crops, that the Navajo begged for peace. Carson gathered the Navajo and moved them to Fort Sumner in New Mexico. They were held prisoners there until 1867.

     So as you can see, the Navajo Indians were a very interesting tribe to learn and study about.

 

Questions

1. What is the main idea of this passage?
A. The Navajo Indians were warlike.
B. The Navajo Indians were a very interesting tribe to learn and study about .
C. The Navajos had ceremonies called Night Chants.
D. The Pueblo taught the Navajo many skills.

2. What is the main idea of the third paragraph?
A. The Pueblo Indians taught the Navajo many skills.
B. The Navajo wore shoes called moccasins.
C. The Navajo were skilled at rug weaving.
D. The Navajo were referred to as sheep herders.

3. What is the main idea of the sixth paragraph?
A. The Navajo were held prisoners for many years.
B. Kit Carson was a brave and daring man.
C. The Navajo were a warlike people.
D. The 400 men all died.

Same Looks, Different Personalities

By : Rachel

     Maya and Melissa are twin sisters. They both have shoulder length brown hair and they are both 5 feet tall. From this description you might think that the sisters are just alike, but they are very different.

Maya spends most of her time playing sports. Her favorite sports are baseball and soccer. She has gone to many championships and won many trophies, and was even said to be the team's most valuable player.

     Melissa hates sports. She plays the piano and has played in many recitals and has won many awards. She loves writing and writes some stories for a children's magazine. She has won many statewide writing contests.

Maya is a poor student, but keeps her grades up enough to barely pass. She isn't interested in school. She doesn't like to read anything, except for sports magazines.

     Melissa is a good student. She studies a lot and is at the top of her class. She was valedictorian when she graduated from elementary school. Melissa loves books and reads them all the time.

Maya is outgoing and loud. She is also very humorous. When someone is feeling down, you could count on Maya to make them laugh. She usually wears jeans, a shirt, and she wears her hair up in her lucky baseball hat.

Melissa is quiet and shy. But she is a good listener. When someone tells her a problem, she tries to understand how they feel. Melissa wears skirts and sweaters and wears her hair up in a ponytail.

      The two sisters may have very different personalities, but they are best friends and very close.

 

Questions

1. What is the main idea of this passage?

A. Melissa is very shy.

B. Maya loves sports.

C. The twins look alike, but they have different personalities.

D. The twins are very different, but they are very close.

 

2. What is the main idea of the fourth paragraph?

A. Maya isn't interested in school and doesn't like reading.

B. Maya loves sports magazines.

C. Maya loves to read.

D. Maya is a poor student.

 

3. What is the main idea of the second paragraph?

A. Maya plays baseball.

B. Melissa plays the piano.

C. Maya loves sports.

D. Maya loves the flute.

 

4. What is the main idea of the fifth paragraph?

A. Melissa has skipped a grade.

B. Melissa is a good student.

C. Maya loves to write.

D. Melissa pays attention.

 

 Answers

 

The Navajo Indians

1. What is the main idea of this passage?

B. The Navajo Indians were a interesting tribe to learn and study about.

2. What is the main idea of the third paragraph?

A. The Navajo had many skills.

3. What is the main idea of the sixth paragraph?

C. The Navajo were a warlike people.

 

Same Looks, Different Personalities

1. What is the main idea of this passage?

C. The twins look alike, but have different personalities.

2. What is the main idea of the fourth paragraph?

A. Maya isn't interested in school, and doesn't like to read.

3. What is the main idea of the second paragraph?

C. Maya loves sports.

4. What is the main idea of the fifth paragraph?

B. Melissa is a good student.

 

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